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How many non-cardiac surgical patients have a dangerous drop in pressure?1-5



  1. Shah NJ, Mentz G, Kheterpal S. The incidence of intraoperative hypotension in moderate to high risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: A retrospective multicenter observational analysis. J Clin Anesth. 2020 Nov;66:109961.
  2. Salmasi, V., Maheshwari, K., Yang, G., Mascha, E.J., Singh, A., Sessler, D.I., & Kurz, A. (2017). Relationship between intraoperative hypotension, defined by either reduction from baseline or absolute thresholds, and acute kidney injury and myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort analysis. Anesthesiology, 126(1), 47-65.
  3. Sun LY, Wijeysundera DN, Tait GA, Beattie WS. Association of intraoperative hypotension with acute kidney injury after elective non-cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology. 2015 Sep;123(3):515- 23.
  4. Walsh M, Devereaux PJ, Garg AX, Kurz A, Turan A, Rodseth RN, Cywinski J, Thabane L, Sessler DI. Relationship between intraoperative mean arterial pressure and clinical outcomes after non-cardiac surgery: toward an empirical definition of hypotension. Anesthesiology. 2013 Sep;119(3):507-15.
  5. Sessler DI, Khanna AK. Perioperative myocardial injury and the contribution of hypotension. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Jun;44(6):811-822. doi: 10.1007/s00134-018-5224-7. Epub 2018 Jun 4. PMID: 29868971.
  6. Bijker JB, van Klei WA, Kappen TH, van Wolfswinkel L, Moons KGM, Kalkman CJ. Incidence of intraoperative hypotension as a function of the chosen definition: literature definitions applied to a retrospective cohort using automated data collection. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: 213e20.
  7. Gregory A, Stapelfeldt WH, Khanna AK, et al. Intraoperative hypotension is associated with adverse clinical outcomes after non-cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2021;132(6):1654-1665.
  8. Wesselink EM, Kappen TH, Torn HM, et al. Intraoperative hypotension and the risk of postoperative adverse outcomes: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth. 2018;121(4):706-721.
  9. Davies SJ, Vistisen ST, Zhongping J, et al. Ability of an arterial waveform analysis-derived hypotension prediction index to predict future hypotensive events in surgical patients. Anesth Analg. 2020;130(2):352- 359.
  10. Khan, J., Alonso-Coello, P., Devereaux, P.J., Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery, Curr Opin Cardiol, 2014, 29: 307-311.
  11. Sellers, D., Srinivas, C., Djaiani, G. (2018). Cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia, 73 (Suppl. 1), 34 - 42.
  12. van Waes, J., Nathoe, H., Graa, J., Kemperman, H., de Borst, G., Peelen, L., van Klei, W. (2013). Myocardial Injury After Non-cardiac Surgery and its Association With Short-Term Mortality. Circulation, 127, 2264 – 2271.
  13. Meersch M, Schmidt C, Zarbock A. Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: An Under-Recognized Problem. Anesth Analg. 2017 Oct;125(4):1223-1232.
  14. Hobson C, OzrazgatBaslanti T, Kuxhausen A, et al. Cost and mortality associated with postoperative acute kidney injury. Ann Surg. 2015;261(6):1207-1214.
  15. Ward H. van der Ven, Denise P. Veelo, Marije Wijnberge, Björn J.P. van der Ster, Alexander P.J. Vlaar, Bart F. Geerts, One of the first validations of an artificial intelligence algorithm for clinical use: The impact on intraoperative hypotension prediction and clinical decision-making, Surgery, Volume 169, Issue 6, 2021, Pages 1300-1303, ISSN 0039-6060, ( pii/S0039606020307728.
  16. Feras Hatib, Zhongping Jian, Sai Buddi, Christine Lee, Jos Settels, Karen Sibert, Joseph Rinehart, Maxime Cannesson; Machine-learning Algorithm to Predict Hypotension Based on Highfidelity Arterial Pressure Waveform Analysis. Anesthesiology 2018; 129:663–674 

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