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Blood management

Conserve blood, reduce infection and decrease transfusion risk through effective blood management.



  1. Tinmouth, A.T., L.A. McIntyre, and R.A. Fowler, Blood conservation strategies to reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 2008. 178(1): p. 49-57.
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  3. Barth, M.D., et al., Blood Conservation: What Is Current Blood Draw Practice? Journal of infusion nursing : the official publication of the Infusion Nurses Society, 2013. 36(5): p. 323-328.
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  5. Henry, M.L., W.L. Garner, and P.J. Fabri, Iatrogenic anemia. Am J Surg, 1986. 151(3): p. 362-3.
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  7. O'Hare, D. and R.J. Chilvers, Arterial blood sampling practices in intensive care units in England and Wales. Anaesthesia, 2001. 56(6): p. 568-71.
  8. Low, L.L., G.R. Harrington, and D.P. Stoltzfus, The effect of arterial lines on blood-drawing practices and costs in intensive care units. Chest, 1995. 108(1): p. 216-9.
  9. Yucha, C.B. and E. DeAngelo, The minimum discard volume: accurate analysis of peripheral hematocrit. J Intraven Nurs, 1996. 19(3): p. 141-6.
  10. Keller, C.A., Methods of drawing blood samples through central venous catheters in pediatric patients undergoing bone marrow transplant: results of a national survey. Oncol Nurs Forum, 1994. 21(5): p. 879-84.
  11. Holmes, K.R., Comparison of push-pull versus discard method from central venous catheters for blood testing. J Intraven Nurs, 1998. 21(5): p. 282-5.
  12. Oto, J., et al., Comparison of bacterial contamination of blood conservation system and stopcock system arterial sampling. American Journal of Infection, 2012. 40(6): p. 530-4.
  13. Thavendiranathan, P., et al., Do blood tests cause anemia in hospitalized patients? The effect of diagnostic phlebotomy on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Journal of general internal medicine, 2005. 20(6): p. 520-4.
  14. Salisbury, A.C., et al., Diagnostic blood loss from phlebotomy and hospital-acquired anemia during acute myocardial infarction. Archives of internal medicine, 2011. 171(18): p. 1646-53.
  15. Chant, C., G. Wilson, and J.O. Friedrich, Anemia, transfusion, and phlebotomy practices in critically ill patients with prolonged ICU length of stay: a cohort study. Critical care, 2006. 10(5): p. R140.
  16. Lin, J.C., et al., Phlebotomy overdraw in the neonatal intensive care nursery. Pediatrics, 2000. 106(2): p. E19.
  17. Peruzzi, W.T., et al., A clinical evaluation of a blood conservation device in medical intensive care unit patients. Critical care medicine, 1993. 21(4): p. 501-6.
  18. Page, C., A. Retter, and D. Wyncoll, Blood conservation devices in critical care: a narrative review. Annals of intensive care, 2013. 3(1): p. 14.
  19. Corwin, H.L., K.C. Parsonnet, and A. Gettinger, RBC transfusion in the ICU. Is there a reason? Chest, 1995. 108(3): p. 767-71.
  20. Bateman, S.T., et al., Anemia, blood loss, and blood transfusions in North American children in the intensive care unit. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2008. 178(1): p. 26-33.
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  24. Rezende E, F.M., Manoel Da Silva Junior J, et al, Closed system for blood sampling and transfusion in critically ill patients. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva, 2010. 22: p. 5-10.
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  26. Rudis, M.I., et al., Managing anemia in the critically ill patient. Pharmacotherapy, 2004. 24(2): p. 229-47.
  27. De Gaudio, A.R. and A. Di Filippo, Device-related infections in critically ill patients. Part I: Prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. J Chemother, 2003. 15(5): p. 419-27.
  28. Crow, S., et al., Microbial contamination of arterial infusions used for hemodynamic monitoring: a randomized trial of contamination with sampling through conventional stopcocks versus a novel closed system. Infection control and hospital epidemiology: the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America, 1989. 10(12): p. 557-61.
  29. Moron N., J.E., Moreno I., Lazaro A., Dispositivo VAMP Beneficis para el paciente critico. Rev ROL Enf, 2003. 26(9): p. 591-594.
  30. Shander, A., et al., Activity-based costs of blood transfusions in surgical patients at four hospitals. Transfusion, 2010. 50(4): p. 753-65.
  31. Society for the Advancement of Blood Management, Professional Definition of Patient Blood Management (PBM) on homepage,, retrieved April 17, 2015.
  32. Society for the Advancement of Blood Management®. SABM Administrative and Clinical Standards for Patient Blood Management Programs, 3rd Edition. Unpublished work © 2014.
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  34. Tang, M., et al. Closed Blood Conservation Device for Reducing Catheter-Related Infections in Children After Cardiac Surgery. Crit Care Nurse, 2014. Oct;34(5):53-60. doi:10.4037/ccn2014416.
  35. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program.

All information provided by Edwards Lifesciences is gathered from third party sources and is presented for informational purposes only. This information is not intended to describe, recommend, or suggest any use, feature, or benefit of any Edwards product and does not constitute reimbursement, medical or legal advice. Edwards makes no representation or warranty regarding his information or its completeness, accuracy or timeliness. It is not intended to make a recommendation regarding clinical practice. Laws, regulations, and payer policies concerning reimbursement are complex and change frequently; service providers are responsible for all decisions relating to clinical serves, coding and reimbursement submissions. Accordingly, Edwards strongly recommends consultation with payers, reimbursement specialists and/or legal counsel regarding coding, coverage and reimbursement matters.

Medical device for professional use

For a listing of indications, contraindications, precautions, warnings, and potential adverse events, please refer to the Instructions for Use (consult where applicable).